Southern Banat and Apuseni Mountains

Southern Banat and Apuseni Mountains

The following map shows the two adjacent eponymous villages Vinca and Starcevo that have already bean mentioned. In about 150 km linear distance, or about 220 km along the river banks of the Danube is the estuary of the Cerna, about 10 and 20 km downstream is the location of the Iron Gates and the remnants of the Trajan`s Bridge. West of the Cerna and the headwaters and tributaries of the Timis are the Apuseni Mountains and south of them are the Banat Mountains, the outskirts of the Carpathian Mountains.

1 Vinca, 2 Starcevo, 3 Pestera cu Oase, 4 Herkulesbad, 5 Iron Gates, 6 Trajan`s Bridge

Pestera cu Oase, literally translated The Cave with Bones, is a system of caves where some of the oldest bones of Homo Sapiens in Europe was found. These remnants are between 37.000 and 42.000 years old, bearing about 5-12% Neanderthal DNA. Therefore, it is regarded as secured that folks are living in this area for a very, very long time.

Pestera cu Oase lies near Steierdorf, nowadays Anina in Caras-Severin County in Romania. Steierdorf, located in a height of about 600 m above sea level, was founded in 1773 when 34 tree harvesters and charcoal burners from Styria, German Steiermark, were established there to secure the demand for wood in the ironworks in nearby Orawitz/ Oravita, about 10 km to the west. Black coal was found in 1790 and mining started in 1792. Another resource found in this area was Oil shale, which was also useful to give off heat after being reprocessed.

Hunters and gatherers living in this region had access to all necessary resources within a radius of not even 100 km. They had access to caves located near thermal springs like those near Herkulesbad/ Baile Herculane and caves next to heating resources like Pestera cu Oase, spending them a warm and comfortable shelter during the colder months in autumn and winter. As soon as the days got longer and the sun was able to warmth up the earth again, the available food resources became easier to hunt and gather in the rivers, streams, ponds and swamps of the adjacent plains in the West of the sheltering mountain ranges and therefore, folks moved to the river banks of the waters meandering through the endless flatland of the Great Hungarian Plains.


Origin of the trash

Origin of the trash

The fluvial terraces of the river banks of the Danube between the estuaries of Tisza and Timis were perfect settlement spots for hunters and gatherers and the folks living during the copper age. The lower courses of the rivers Timis and Bega are crossing the Plains of the Banat, unwatering their headwaters in the Apuseni Mountain range. The watershed “behind” these two rivers divides them from the drainage system and the headwaters of the river Mieresch (German), Maros (Hungarian), Mures (Romanian), a stream with a length of about 790 km, draining an area of about 30 000 km². All resources used by hunters and gatherers – flint stone, tree resin and tar – and the folks of the copper age – copper – are available in abundance in this region.

Following the Timis upstream finally leads to the village Burgort (German)/ Gradiste, Varhely (Hungarian), nowadays Sarmizegetusa in Romania, the former capital Ulpia Traiana of Roman Dacia. Right next to this village a roman camp of the 7th and 13th legion was located AD 103, according to the maps of the Habsburg Empire. Next to this roman camp is the location of a battlefield from 1659. The paths in northern direction lead to Hunedoara, which was called Eisenmarkt in German. The literal translation for this town is iron market, which is a subtle hint for the former importance of this town, about 30 km north of the former roman capital of Roman Dacia, nowadays Transylvania in the middle of the Carpathian Mountains.


Another 50 km from iron market is the location of the Battle of Breadfield that took place on October 13 in 1479.

In visual range are the finding spots of 3 chariots of unidentified age, which means these chariots might date back to anything ranging from roman times back to the bronze age.

Following the headwaters of the river Muresch finally lead to the river Aries. The German name for this river is Goldfluss, which translates to Golden River. Upstream this river is the location of nowadays Rosia Montana, with the German name Goldbach – the Golden Stream. Rosia Montana is the biggest gold deposit of the Carpathian Mountains, planning to produce about 225 tons gold and 819 tons silver over 17 years.

Rosia Montana gold mine

The gold mines are marked with a red circle and a dot. The material that was taken out of these deposits was transported to stamping mills, where the material was crushed and the gold was taken out. According to the maps and charts of the Habsburg Empire, dozens of gold mines and stamping mills were once located in this area.

The golden stream flowed down the golden mountain, where the gold mines were located. Next to them dozens of stamping mills were the gold-bearing material was crushed near the mentioned golden stream, that flowed into the golden river – right next to the gold washing hill. There are calculations about the residual gold of Rosia Montana ranging from about 400 tons of gold and 2000 tons of silver – although there is already not that much left of this mountain. Not only the Romans took tremendous efforts in the securing of this area, every other group of folks that ruled this territory before them build their own infrastructure to secure their influence in this region. The trading routes of the resources of this region follow the waterways which finally pass the estuaries of Timis, Tisza and Bega.

Gold Mountain, golden stream, golden river – can anything be more obvious? Whilst the 7th and 13th legion obviously secured this region, the Trajan`s Bridge was built from 103 to 105 AD, about 100 km south from “the iron market” Eisenmarkt/ Hunedoara. The strategical importance of this valley is underlined by numerous battlefields of the Turkish Wars, that can literally be found throughout the entire region.

Hundreds of tons of gold and thousands tons of silver are left in a single deposit. Although not that rich, there are dozens of gold and silver deposits throughout the entire Carpathian Mountains, not to speak of copper and iron. The Romans build the biggest bridge across the Danube and although this bridge was destroyed about 165 years after its construction, it remained the biggest bridge of the world for more than one thousand years.

How many tons of gold passed the Banat and the Pannonian Plains on the trading routes alongside the waterways and how many tons were washed from the deposits in the mountains into the sand of the Banat? Although the destination and the whereabouts of this gold today can just be guessed, it is pretty sure that hundreds of tons of gold passed this region and the folks that once used to live there, thousands of years ago, had their fair proportion of these resources passing their settlement region, and therefore their customs and duty area.

The Carpathian Mountains are cluttered with numerous deposits of pretty much everything necessary to start a nice civilization throughout the ages. All of the resources pass the Banat, which was an endless swamp before the military frontier was built, together with the corresponding drainage channels and waterways, leading to the lowering of the ground water level. Hunters and gatherers and also the first folks of the copper age, before agriculture and stock breeding was “sophisticated” depended on rich hunting and gathering grounds – and these grounds are located at the fluvial terraces and dry settlement areas next to meandering waterways in an endless swamp full of delicious animals that literally jumped into the pockets of our hunting and gathering ancestors. These folks did not had out worries, of course they had their own problems and things to take care and worry about, but one thing is for sure, they did not depend on gold or anything else in a material way. The only use these folks had for gold was to lay it into the graves of their deceased beloved ones. Whatever they used it for in later ages, the oldest thing to do with it was to use it as a burial object. The origin of this trash was upstream the mentioned rivers and waterways, passing the battlefields, until the names bear gold. This is where the trash downstream the Danube originates from.


Introduction in diplomacy

Introduction in diplomacy

One of the first institutions of contact for anything related to former inhabitants who were expelled from former Yugoslavia following the end of WW II are the associations of the Danube Swabians. These associations are organized as follows.

The regional associations of the federal states of the Danube Swabians of Germany, the federal association and the world federation are attached to the “House of the Danube Swabians” in Sindelfingen. The president of this house until early 2019 was Heribert Rech, former Interior Minister of the federal state Baden-Württemberg. The house in Sindelfingen is attached to the “Institute for Danube Swabian history and regional studies” in Tübingen, which is an institution of the Interior Ministry Baden-Württemberg, which in turn was the employer for a bunch of former war criminals and other riffraff which was formerly employed by the German Intelligence Service and can be found in the report “Wartime activities of the German Diplomatic and Military Services during Word War II” that was declassified during the “nazi war crimes disclosure act’” NWCDA in 1998.

The reasons why the associations of the Danube Swabians are organized as a de facto attachment of the interior ministry, is just pure and simple to deliver the legacies and documents of Danube Swabians into the possession of the interior ministry, just in case papers and manuscripts might contain unit numbers and their activities during WW II and the folks mentioned in these papers can also be found on the payroll of Ministries and Services like CIA and the Gehlen Organization.

One of these folks mentioned in several files in classified sections of “Intelligence” Agencies is Jakob Awender. Awender was the leader of a group calling themselves “reformer movement”, and was supported by NSDAP Germany from 1933. This “reformer movement” was meant to take over the former association of Germans in former Yugoslavia, the “Kulturbund”, which was not supporting the NSDAP. Awender was the head of the “Kulturbund” in Pancevo and editor and publisher of the newspaper “Pantschowaer Post” (Pancevo Post), which he renamed to “Volksruf” in 1933. From 1941, Awender was president of the central cooperative Agraria, making him responsible for an incorporation of dozens of corporations. As soon as the Red Army passed the Carpathian Mountains, Awender was made responsible for the evacuation of civilians of the Banat and although he failed, most important for this hypocrite, he was able to evacuate himself, moved to Germany and later emigrated to the USA. Awender, who moved to Freeport, Illinois, was then involved in the setup of the organization of the Danube Swabian associations in the USA, where he was also involved in the publishing of the newspaper of the Danube Swabian associations in the USA – just like in former Yugoslavia. Furthermore, Jakob Awender donated a cultural award, the “Dr. Jakob Awender Kulturpreis”, which is annually awarded by the USA association of the Danube Swabians. The winner of this award is invited by the interior ministry of Baden-Württemberg and the “Institute” in Tübingen for a polka dance tour in Germany, where the award is just named “cultural award of the Danube Swabians USA”, without mentioning the name of the honorable donor Jakob Awender.